• Help Page

    Errata, Solutions to Selected Problems and Exam Tips

    Having trouble with some questions in the any of the Exam Preparation Guides? Click on the name of your Exam Preparation Guide on the right menu to check out Common Solutions, Errata and Exam Hints & Info.

    If you have any questions about any of the texts, please let us know on our contact page.

    Important Changes

    No more VOTs, but they are still tested in the TC exams
    The VOR Test Facility (VOT) is no longer used. In fact, there haven't been any operating in Canada for several years and all description of them has been removed from the TC AIM. However, Transport Canada is still testing VOTs in the exams so take a few minutes to review the notes and attempt the questions which are provided at the following page, VOT notes and questions.

    RE (recent) code removed from METARs
    As of Nov 14, 2013, the code for recent activity (RE) will no longer be used in METARs or SPECIs as it is deemed redundant. If recent weather is important then a SPECI will be issued, rather than waiting until the next METAR and adding the RE code.
    Refer to AIC 12/13

    Changes to ICAO compliant SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins
    The format of the SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins is changing from the National format to the ICAO compliant format. There will still be a national version issued below the ICAO version which contains relevant domestic information (airport identifiers etc). There is some good information on the NavCanada website and in the latest AIM for you to review.
    Refer to AIC 21/13

    CAP/RCAP Modernization Changes
    The Canada Air Pilot (CAP) and Restricted Canada Air Pilot (RCAP) are being modernized and improved. Detailed information on all the CAP/RCAP changes can be found on the NavCanada webpage at the following link: CAP/RCAP Changes
    You can see the NavCanada presentation on the CAP format changes by clicking here: Presentation.

  • Private Pilot License Exam Prep. Guide

    Solutions

    We do not provide solutions to every question - only those that students find consistently challenging

    If you have a question please let us know on our contact page.

    Private Pilot Exam Prep. Guide

    Navigation Question 85 Solution (PDF, 68 Kb)

    Navigation Question 25 Solution (PDF, 106 Kb)

    Errata / Omissions

    Private Pilot Licence Exam Prep. Guide 2018

    All errata from the previous editions have been corrected in the 2018 edition.

    Section 2.1.14.1, Surface Analysis Charts

    The wind strength for two long barbs should be 20 to 24 knots. Refer to the Station Model Wind Barb diagram below:

    Surface Analysis Chart - Station Model Winds

    Private Pilot Licence Exam Prep. Guide 2017

    Section 3 - Navigation, Question 8

    The correct answer is (d)

      d) 1,200 feet


    Exam Hints & Info

    Use of aeroplane performance charts in the Transport Canada exams

    Some aeroplanes only publish landing performance data for maximum gross weight. When operating below maximum gross weight, using the maximum gross weight landing distance chart will give longer distances than you will be able to achieve in actual operations, and is the conservative and safe way of planning your landing performance.

    It can be confusing during the written exam where the scenario clearly provides an aircraft below maximum gross weight, but there are only performance charts for operations at gross weight. In this case, you are not allowed to extrapolate outside of the information given in the chart and you must answer the exam question with the gross weight landing distance.

    No more VOTs, but they are still tested in the TC exams

    The VOR Test Facility (VOT) is no longer used. In fact, there haven't been any operating in Canada for several years and all description of them has been removed from the TC AIM. However, Transport Canada is still testing VOTs in the exams so take a few minutes to review the notes and attempt the questions which are provided at the following page, VOT notes and questions.

    RE (recent) code removed from METARs

    As of Nov 14, 2013, the code for recent activity (RE) will no longer be used in METARs or SPECIs as it is deemed redundant. If recent weather is important then a SPECI will be issued, rather than waiting until the next METAR and adding the RE code.

    Refer to AIC 12/13

    Changes to ICAO compliant SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins

    The format of the SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins is changing from the National format to the ICAO compliant format. There will still be a national version issued below the ICAO version which contains relevant domestic information (airport identifiers etc). There is some good information on the NavCanada website and in the latest AIM for you to review.

    Refer to AIC 21/13

  • Commercial Pilot License Exam Prep. Guide

    Solutions

    We do not provide solutions to every question - only those that students find consistently challenging

    If you have a question please let us know on our contact page.

    Section 2, Meteorology

    Question 17 Solution (PDF, 72 kB)

    Section 3 - Navigation
    Navigation Question 3 Solution (PDF, 19 Kb)

    Errata / Omissions

    Commercial Pilot License Exam Prep. Guide 2018

    All errata from the previous editions have been corrected in the 2018 edition.

    Air Law - Section 1.1.1 Class 1 Medical Validity Period

    The rules for the validity period of the Class 1 Medical have changed. The new rules are as follows:

    Under 40 years old the Class 1 is valid for 12 months. If you are 40 or older AND flying in a single pilot operation with passengers on board then the Class 1 is valid for 6 months. Also, if you are 60 or older then the Class 1 is valid for 6 months.

    Have a look at CAR CAR 404.04 for details.

    Section 2.1.14.1, Surface Analysis Charts

    The wind strength for two long barbs should be 20 to 24 knots. Refer to the Station Model Wind Barb diagram below:

    Surface Analysis Chart - Station Model Winds

    Exam Hints & Info

    Use of aeroplane performance charts in the Transport Canada exams

    Some aeroplanes only publish landing performance data for maximum gross weight. When operating below maximum gross weight, using the maximum gross weight landing distance chart will give longer distances than you will be able to achieve in actual operations, and is the conservative and safe way of planning your landing performance.

    It can be confusing during the written exam where the scenario clearly provides an aircraft below maximum gross weight, but there are only performance charts for operations at gross weight. In this case, you are not allowed to extrapolate outside of the information given in the chart and you must answer the exam question with the gross weight landing distance.

    No more VOTs, but they are still tested in the TC exams

    The VOR Test Facility (VOT) is no longer used. In fact, there haven't been any operating in Canada for several years and all description of them has been removed from the TC AIM. However, Transport Canada is still testing VOTs in the exams so take a few minutes to review the notes and attempt the questions which are provided at the following page, VOT notes and questions.

    RE (recent) code removed from METARs

    As of Nov 14, 2013, the code for recent activity (RE) will no longer be used in METARs or SPECIs as it is deemed redundant. If recent weather is important then a SPECI will be issued, rather than waiting until the next METAR and adding the RE code.

    Refer to AIC 12/13

    Changes to ICAO compliant SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins

    The format of the SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins is changing from the National format to the ICAO compliant format. There will still be a national version issued below the ICAO version which contains relevant domestic information (airport identifiers etc). There is some good information on the NavCanada website and in the latest AIM for you to review.

    Refer to AIC 21/13

  • Airline Transport Pilot License Exam Prep. Guide

    Solutions

    We do not provide solutions to every question - only those that students find consistently challenging

    If you have a question please let us know on our contact page.

    Airline Transport Pilot Exam Prep. Guide

    Section 3 - Meteorology
    Meteorology Question 1 Solution (PDF, 29 Kb)

    Section 4 - Instruments
    Instruments Question 11 Solution (PDF, 24 Kb)
    Instruments Question 15 Solution (PDF, 37 Kb)
    Instruments Question 23 Solution (PDF, 37 Kb)
    Instruments Question 25 Solution (PDF, 22 Kb)

    Section 7 - Flight Operations
    Pressurization Problems
    Flight Operations Pressurization Questions 19 & 29 Solutions (PDF, 10 Kb)

    Weight and Balance Problems
    Refer to the following files for solutions to the weight and balance exercise from questions 30 to 36.
    Flight Operations Weight & Balance Questions 30 to 33 Solutions (PDF, 66 Kb)
    Flight Operations Weight & Balance Question 34 Solution (PDF, 103 Kb)
    Flight Operations Weight & Balance Questions 35 Solution (PDF, 33 Kb)
    Flight Operations Weight & Balance Questions 36 Solution (PDF, 67 Kb)

    Instruments Question 4 Solution (PDF, 40 Kb)

    Errata / Omissions

    Airline Transport Pilot Exam Prep. Guide 2018

    All errata from the previous editions have been corrected in the 2018 edition.

    Air Law - Section 1.1.1 Class 1 Medical

    The rules for the validity period of the Class 1 Medical have changed. The new rules are as follows:

    • Under 40 years old the Class 1 is valid for 12 months.
    • If you are 40 or older AND flying in a single pilot operation with passengers on board then the Class 1 is valid for 6 months.
    • Also, if you are 60 or older then the Class 1 is valid for 6 months.

    The ECG requirements have also changed. Now, an ECG needs to have been done:

    • Prior to the first issue of a Class 1 Medical Certificate.
    • Within 24 months prior to the medical examination when between 30 and 40 years old
    • Within 12 months prior to the medical examination after 40 years old

    Have a look at CAR CAR 404.04 for details.


    Air Law - Section 1.1.6 Maintaining the Validity of your License

    The rules for the renewing your instrument rating have changed. The instrument rating no longer expires after 24 months, so you don't ever have to re-write the INRAT exam again. However, to maintain the ability to exercise the priveleges of the instrument rating you must have completed an Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC), which is essentially just a flight test, within the 24 months prior to your flight.

    Note that while the regulations themselves have not yet changed, the Minister of Transport issued a global exemption to CAR 401.48. You can see the regulations, global exemption document and the Advisory Circular (AC) at the links below:

    Air Law - Section 1.1.7 Minimum Visibility Requirements for VFR Flight

    The weather requirements tables for flying in uncontrolled airspace were reversed by accident. The "Above 1,000' AGL" table is actually the minimums for flight below 1,000' AGL, while the "Below 1,000' AGL" table is actually the minimums for flight above 1,000' AGL. The correct weather minima for uncontrolled airspace are shown below:

    VFR Weather Minima Table

    Section 8.1.9.6, Upper Air Analysis Charts

    The wind strength for two long barbs should be 20 to 24 knots. Refer to the Station Model Wind Barb diagram below:

    Surface Analysis Chart - Station Model Winds

    Exam Hints & Info

    Airline Transport Pilot Exam Prep. Guide 2016

    General Exam Information

    The Transport Canada Study and Reference Guide for the ATPL exams doesn't list Human Factors for either the SARON or SAMRA exams, but the feedback that we received from students who have written the ATPL exams is that Human Factors questions do come up in the SAMRA exam quite often.

    Human Factors is considered such an important topic that you should know the material anyway and be prepared for Human Factors questions on every exam.

    A similar situation occurs where the SARON lists "General Navigation", while the SAMRA lists "Radio Aids to Navigation". In reality there is a lot of common information between General Navigation and Radio Aids to Navigation, so you can expect both types of questions in the SARON as well as the SAMRA exams.

    Useful Formulae and Charts

    Boeing 727 cruise performance (PDF, 50 Kb)
    ATPL Formula Sheet (PDF, 37 Kb)

    Important Changes

    No more VOTs, but they are still tested in the TC exams
    The VOR Test Facility (VOT) is no longer used. In fact, there haven't been any operating in Canada for several years and all description of them has been removed from the TC AIM. However, Transport Canada is still testing VOTs in the exams so take a few minutes to review the notes and attempt the questions which are provided at the following page, VOT notes and questions.

    RE (recent) code removed from METARs
    As of Nov 14, 2013, the code for recent activity (RE) will no longer be used in METARs or SPECIs as it is deemed redundant. If recent weather is important then a SPECI will be issued, rather than waiting until the next METAR and adding the RE code.
    Refer to AIC 12/13

    Changes to ICAO compliant SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins
    The format of the SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins is changing from the National format to the ICAO compliant format. There will still be a national version issued below the ICAO version which contains relevant domestic information (airport identifiers etc). There is some good information on the NavCanada website and in the latest AIM for you to review.
    Refer to AIC 21/13

  • Instrument Rating Exam Prep. Guide

    Solutions

    We do not provide solutions to every question - only those that students find consistently challenging

    If you have a question please let us know on our contact page.

    Instrument Rating Exam Prep. Guide 2018

    Section 3.2 - Altimeter Setting Procedures and Altimeter Errors Questions

    Question 13 Solution (PDF, 325 Kb)

    Instrument Rating Exam Prep. Guide 2016

    Section 5.2.2 - VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range (VOR) Questions

    Question 3 Solution (PDF, 19 Kb)

    Errata / Omissions

    Instrument Rating Exam Prep. Guide 2018

    All errata from the previous editions have been corrected in the 2018 edition.

    Section 1.1 - IFR Rating Requirements and Currency

    The rules for the renewing your instrument rating have changed. The instrument rating no longer expires after 24 months, so you don't ever have to re-write the INRAT exam again. However, to maintain the ability to exercise the priveleges of the instrument rating you must have completed an Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC), which is essentially just a flight test, within the 24 months prior to your flight.

    Note that while the regulations themselves have not yet changed, the Minister of Transport issued a global exemption to CAR 401.48. You can see the regulations, global exemption document and the Advisory Circular (AC) at the links below:



    Instrument Rating Exam Prep. Guide 2017

    All errata from the previous editions have been corrected in the 2017 edition.

    Section 10.2.2 - Contact Approaches, Question 3

    The correct answer is (c)

      c) In flight visibility must be at least 1nm irrespective of the reported visibility at the aerodrome


    Section 10.3.2 - Alternate Minima, Question 11

    The METAR provided in the question should say:

    METAR CYKA 061053Z 26015G20 5SM –RABR OVC022 .........



    Exam Hints & Info

    No more VOTs, but they are still tested in the TC exams
    The VOR Test Facility (VOT) is no longer used. In fact, there haven't been any operating in Canada for several years and all description of them has been removed from the TC AIM. However, Transport Canada is still testing VOTs in the exams so take a few minutes to review the notes and attempt the questions which are provided at the following page, VOT notes and questions.

    RE (recent) code removed from METARs
    As of Nov 14, 2013, the code for recent activity (RE) will no longer be used in METARs or SPECIs as it is deemed redundant. If recent weather is important then a SPECI will be issued, rather than waiting until the next METAR and adding the RE code.
    Refer to AIC 12/13

    Changes to ICAO compliant SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins
    The format of the SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins is changing from the National format to the ICAO compliant format. There will still be a national version issued below the ICAO version which contains relevant domestic information (airport identifiers etc). There is some good information on the NavCanada website and in the latest AIM for you to review.
    Refer to AIC 21/13

  • Instructor Rating Exam Prep. Guide

    Solutions

    We do not provide solutions to every question - only those that students find consistently challenging

    If you have a question please let us know on our contact page.

    Errata / Omissions

    Instructor Rating Exam Prep. Guide 2018

    All errata from the previous editions have been corrected in the 2018 edition.

    Air Law - Section 1.1.14 Class 1, 3 and 4 Medical Certificates

    The rules for the validity period of the Class 1 Medical have changed. The new rules are as follows:

    Under 40 years old the Class 1 is valid for 12 months. If you are 40 or older AND flying in a single pilot operation with passengers on board then the Class 1 is valid for 6 months. Also, if you are 60 or older then the Class 1 is valid for 6 months.

    Have a look at CAR CAR 404.04 for details.

    Appendix B - Air Law, Question 7

    The answer to this question should be: "(c) 17 years old" is the minimum age to hold a Private Pilot License


    Exam Hints & Info

    Use of aeroplane performance charts in the Transport Canada exams

    Some aeroplanes only publish landing performance data for maximum gross weight. When operating below maximum gross weight, using the maximum gross weight landing distance chart will give longer distances than you will be able to achieve in actual operations, and is the conservative and safe way of planning your landing performance.

    It can be confusing during the written exam where the scenario clearly provides an aircraft below maximum gross weight, but there are only performance charts for operations at gross weight. In this case, you are not allowed to extrapolate outside of the information given in the chart and you must answer the exam question with the gross weight landing distance.

    No more VOTs, but they are still tested in the TC exams

    The VOR Test Facility (VOT) is no longer used. In fact, there haven't been any operating in Canada for several years and all description of them has been removed from the TC AIM. However, Transport Canada is still testing VOTs in the exams so take a few minutes to review the notes and attempt the questions which are provided at the following page, VOT notes and questions.

    RE (recent) code removed from METARs

    As of Nov 14, 2013, the code for recent activity (RE) will no longer be used in METARs or SPECIs as it is deemed redundant. If recent weather is important then a SPECI will be issued, rather than waiting until the next METAR and adding the RE code.

    Refer to AIC 12/13

    Changes to ICAO compliant SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins

    The format of the SIGMET and AIRMET bulletins is changing from the National format to the ICAO compliant format. There will still be a national version issued below the ICAO version which contains relevant domestic information (airport identifiers etc). There is some good information on the NavCanada website and in the latest AIM for you to review.

    Refer to AIC 21/13

  • Multi Engine Rating Preparation Guide

    Solutions

    We do not provide solutions to every question - only those that students find consistently challenging

    Errata / Omissions

    Multi Engine Prep. 1st Edition

    Table of Contents: Appendix A page number
    The page number for Appendix A in the table of contents is incorrect. Appendix A (Answer Keys) begins on page 203.

    Exam Hints & Info

    There is no written exam for the multi-engine rating, however there is an extensive oral exam during the flight test. Refer to Section 5 of the Multi-Engine Rating Preparation Guide and to the aircraft specific Flight Test Performance Calculation Packages on the Online Supplements page for help in preparing for your oral exam.